Path to 2030
Governor Brown’s Executive Order B-48-18 sets ambitious targets of 200 hydrogen fueling stations and 250,000 plug-in electric chargers to support 1.5 million zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) in California by 2025, on the path to 5 million ZEVs by 2030. The Governor’s initiative is designed to focus multi-stakeholder funding and efforts on deploying charging and fueling infrastructure as well as making zero-emission vehicles increasingly affordable to own and operate.
Success of the zero-emission vehicle market depends on contributions from multiple stakeholders, both public and private. The Executive Order sets targets for stakeholders to organize around, and tasks state agencies to exercise their authority to enable the success of each market contributor and participant.
Publicly available plug-in charging and hydrogen fueling stations are fundamental to widespread zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) adoption. Well-placed shared chargers and stations expand the utility of ZEVs, regardless of a vehicle’s baseline range. The infrastructure goals in the Executive Order are designed to enable at least 1.5 million drivers across California to use a ZEV to meet their driving needs by 2025, and catalyze the momentum necessary to scale to 5 million ZEVs by 2030.
California’s commitment to both plug-in electric and hydrogen electric is part of a broader strategy to ensure we ultimately have a zero-emission option for every driver. The technologies are complementary and fostering both will give our state the best chance to meet our long-term climate and air quality goals, reaching all segments of the vehicle market to meet wide-ranging driver needs.
Plug-in Electric Charging
The Governor’s 250,000 plug-in electric charger target includes the following shared charger types essential to market growth: multi-unit dwellings, destinations (including workplaces and points of interest, such as shopping centers, hotels, parks, etc.) and direct current fast chargers. The overarching 250,000 target includes a sub-goal for at least 10,000 direct current fast chargers by 2025, which are placed at locations such as restaurants, rest stops, and shopping centers to allow drivers to quickly charge their car during a brief stop.
A key implementation challenge is getting a complete count of how many charging stations are across the state. While we have good numbers on public charging stations, there are two main challenge areas: workplace chargers and multi-unit dwelling (e.g., apartments) chargers. GO-Biz and partner state agencies are developing a strategy to capture these market segments in our charger counts. Read more about it in the “Current Activities & Next Steps” section.
More detailed information on the plug-in electric charger targets is detailed in the California Energy Commission’s Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) Analysis and the supporting county-level Visualization Tool. EVI-Pro simulates household travel behaviors to quantify the charging infrastructure necessary for plug-in electric vehicles to meet the current needs of drivers across the state. The EVI-Pro analysis estimates that, by 2025, the state will need between 229,000 and 279,000 plug-in electric chargers, including public, workplace, and multi-unit dwelling chargers.
Unlike plug-in electric vehicles, the hydrogen electric vehicle market is completely dependent on public infrastructure. However, given the quick 3 to 5 minute fueling time and the long range of hydrogen electric vehicles (over 300 miles per fill), significantly fewer stations are required to build a statewide fueling network. To date, infrastructure has been the limiting factor in hydrogen electric vehicle deployments.
The California Air Resources Board’s 2017 Annual Evaluation of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Deployment and Hydrogen Fuel Station Network Development found that projected demand for hydrogen electric vehicles will soon outpace available hydrogen supply at the current rate of station construction. Without the acceleration of station development, California counties will begin experiencing deficits in hydrogen supply by 2020, with significant deficits statewide by 2023.
Funding for hydrogen stations comes from the California Energy Commission’s Alternative Fuel and Renewable Vehicle Technology Program (ARFVTP), which currently has the authority to fund at least 100 stations. By doubling California’s hydrogen station target and funding support to 200 stations by 2025, the State will help ensure continued market development of this important complementary technology and continue to build driver confidence that a hydrogen electric vehicle can take them where they want to go. A future with 200 strategically placed hydrogen stations by 2025 will enable hydrogen electric vehicles to follow the adoption trajectory of hybrid vehicles on a path to being able to support approximately 1 million hydrogen electric vehicles in California by 2030.
Current Activities and Next Steps
Implementation of Executive Order B-48-18 will require efforts from all stakeholders, including, but not limited to: state agencies, local government, industry, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and community-based groups. Below is the latest on the components of implementation coordinated by our ZEV team at GO-Biz.
2016 ZEV Action Plan Update
GO-Biz is working with state agency partners to update the 2016 ZEV Action Plan, with the goal of outlining near-term actions to implement the goals in the new Executive Order. The actions in the 2016 ZEV Action Plan will remain active, as it was published in October 2016 and important actions remain to be completed.
Tracking Infrastructure Progress
To track progress toward the infrastructure targets in Executive Order B-48-18, GO-Biz, in partnership CARB, CEC and CPUC, will develop a coordinated strategy to document the number of vehicle charging stations and hydrogen stations as new stations come online. Today, two data gaps exist: the number of workplace and multi-unit dwelling chargers. To fill these gaps, we will be asking our private partners who develop plug-in electric charging stations to share workplace and multi-unit dwelling charger numbers, while maintaining any requested site specific privacy. This will enable a clearer understanding of the plug-in electric charging picture statewide in non-public use cases, without releasing geographically sensitive information (for chargers installed for a particular set of users, for example).
Further, we will be tracking the investment commitments made by public and private entities across the state. Our goal is to create a comprehensive view of public financial commitments from any party, so that observers can get a clear picture of zero-emission infrastructure investments statewide.
Station Development Guidebooks
Pursuant to the new Executive Order, GO-Biz is creating a Plug-in Charging Station Development Guidebook and updating the 2015 Hydrogen Station Permitting Guide. The intent of both guidebooks is to alleviate remaining barriers in the plug-in electric charging station and hydrogen station development processes, respectively. GO-Biz will keep stakeholders informed and involved throughout the guidebook development process over the next several months. If you’re interested in contributing to either document, or simply staying up-to-date on progress, email the ZEV Unit.
The Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) was created by Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. to serve as the State of California's leader for job growth and economic development efforts. GO-Biz partnered with the State's Information Technology Leadership Academy 22 to create the California Business Portal.